There's an easy way to make sense of your pantry and cupboards. It's going to sound familiar to how we organize most spaces!
First, pull out everything in the pantry/cupboards that you'd like to tackle. Stack and pile items into categories as you go: food, dishes, appliances, etc. I suggest that you also look through the food items as you take them out, making sure it isn't expired. Also ask yourself if it's still an item you intend to eat; diets change! Trash or recycle what you can. Bag up the housewares you don't want or use any more and the unopened food items. These can be donated to local shelters and food pantries.
Try to put these categorized items back into the pantry, now cleaned out, in a more organized manner than you had previously. Food on one shelf, spices on another, paper products up high (if you rarely use them) and appliances down low (they're so heavy!). But, you may still have a category or two left on the counter. These items might not make sense to keep in the pantry. You might even wonder how they even ended up in the kitchen in the first place!
Once one space is cleared out and organized, you're likely to find something that belongs in another room. Then, move it to that room (and maybe organize that space next, if need be) after you've finished up in the pantry and kitchen. Don't get sidetracked!
If the entire kitchen is still a daunting task, then tackle one general category at a time: food, pots and pans, appliances, etc. Schedule time to make decisions on each category. Then, once you've pared down, you can more easily decide where things should live in your kitchen.